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m-swimming4Metabolic specificity of exercise and training is based on an understanding of the transfer of energy in biological systems. Efficient and productive training program can be designed through an understanding of the process of energy repletion for muscle work of various inensity and duration of load.


  • Bioenergetics or the flow of energy in a biological system, concerns primarily the conversion of macronutrients-carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which contain chemical energy.
  • Energy emerges with the decomposition of high-energy bonds in such macronutrients which release energy needed to carry out mechanic work. vzniká rozkladem vysoce energetických vazeb high-energy bonds v těchto makroživinách, které uvolňují energii potřebnou k vykonání mechanické práce.
  • Catabolism is the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules, associated with the release of energy (e.g. breakdown of glycogen into glucose).
  • Anabolism is opposite of catabolism. It is the synthesis of larger molecules from smaller molecules (e.g. synthesis of proteins from amino acids).
  • Exegetic reactions are energy-releasing reaction and are generally catabolic (e.g. breakdown of adenosine troposphere into adenosine diphosphate).
  • Endergonic reactions require energy and include anabolic processes.
  • Metabolism is the total of all the catabolic or exergonic and anabolic or endergonic reactions in a biological system. Energy derived from catabolic or exergonic is used to drive anabolic or endergonics reactions through an intermediate molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Adenosine triphosphate allows the transfer of energy from exergonic to endergonic reactions. Without an adequate supply of ATP, muscular activity and growth would not be possible.

Logo7100Indicators of exercse load provide information on the condition of organism during training activity. They are sensitive to changes in the size of load. Among the indicators, there are:

  1. Heart rate
  2. Lactate
  3. Oxygen consumption
  4. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER)

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