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The increase in performance generally is related to the achievement of adaptive changes in the organism. Adaptive changes can be achieved by repeated application of Exercise load. The way to achieve adaptive changes in the organism is a systematic repetition of Exercise load. Repeated loads refer to as adaptation stimulus. The principle of adaptive changes is the axis: homeostasis → adaptation stimulus (load) → adaptation.

If adaptation stimuli are applied properly, training can be expected to have accumulative effect. If motor activity is carried out in such a way that it evokes desirable current change of human functional activity, and consequently long-term, structural and psycho-social changes, it can be referred to as load.

Example : If I run every other night in the park without much planning and adherence to the principles of sports training, sooner or later pass the same track may be quicker, but also feeling more relaxed, which is a simplified functional change. Psychosocial changes in this case represent my daily effort and responsibility run out every night out.

m-swimming4Metabolic specificity of exercise and training is based on an understanding of the transfer of energy in biological systems. Efficient and productive training program can be designed through an understanding of the process of energy repletion for muscle work of various inensity and duration of load.


  • Bioenergetics or the flow of energy in a biological system, concerns primarily the conversion of macronutrients-carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which contain chemical energy.
  • Energy emerges with the decomposition of high-energy bonds in such macronutrients which release energy needed to carry out mechanic work. vzniká rozkladem vysoce energetických vazeb high-energy bonds v těchto makroživinách, které uvolňují energii potřebnou k vykonání mechanické práce.
  • Catabolism is the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules, associated with the release of energy (e.g. breakdown of glycogen into glucose).
  • Anabolism is opposite of catabolism. It is the synthesis of larger molecules from smaller molecules (e.g. synthesis of proteins from amino acids).
  • Exegetic reactions are energy-releasing reaction and are generally catabolic (e.g. breakdown of adenosine troposphere into adenosine diphosphate).
  • Endergonic reactions require energy and include anabolic processes.
  • Metabolism is the total of all the catabolic or exergonic and anabolic or endergonic reactions in a biological system. Energy derived from catabolic or exergonic is used to drive anabolic or endergonics reactions through an intermediate molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Adenosine triphosphate allows the transfer of energy from exergonic to endergonic reactions. Without an adequate supply of ATP, muscular activity and growth would not be possible.

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